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The emphasis is on the deterioration of the participation of the political institutions and politicians before the citizenry, which shows a process of exhaustion, loss of legitimacy of institutions and actors. This process goes back a few decades and shows no sign, in the short term, of the emergence of new structures in the political system. The author systematizes the morphology of exhaustion and identifies the trends in which the reform can be based. The author believes that such reform should be based on constitutional engineering and should support the political reform process from the tendencies of change that are expressed in the political system.
Published in Revista Derecho Electoral.