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China Studies



Reforming citizenship in China

Steven W. Lewis

Reforming citizenship in China.

After more than five decades, China's central government is modernizing, standardizing and regulating the Hukou system of registration that largely tied farmers to the lands on which they were born, and kept them out of the cities and away from competing with urban residents for jobs and benefits. China is now officially gradually phasing out its highly unequal two-tier system of citizenship. China fellow Steve Lewis explains in "Reforming citizenship in China," published in the Baker Institute Blog on July 31, 2014.